GRAMMAR   AND TENSES AND WRITING ! 

GRAMMAR = SYNTAX +     { MORPHOLOGY + PHONOLOGY + SEMANTICS ( MEANINGS AND PHILOSOPHY ) } 

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Elements of Grammar

Grammar is the set of rules a language uses to convey meaning. It is one of the fundamental building blocks of language, along with lexicon, or vocabulary. When you use proper grammar, you are following the generally accepted rules of your language.

Elements of grammar include:

  • Morphology: The ways morphemes connect to make words
  • Phonology: The sounds of words
  • Semantics: The meanings of words and relationships between words
  • Syntax: The structure of words in a sentence

Grammar dictates the ways you use words, especially parts of speech. For example, nouns and verbs must agree with each other in your sentence. But, the order of words in that sentence relies on its syntax.

Elements of Syntax

The Greek word syntax means β€œarrange together.” Syntax has more to do with linguistics than language. Because syntax is a part of grammar, all syntactical rules are also grammar rules. Here are some elements of syntax:

  • Parts of a sentence: Subject, predicate, object, direct object
  • Phrases: A group of words without a subject or predicate
  • Clauses: A group of words with a subject and verb
  • Sentence structure: The construction of simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex sentences

Grammar rules and patterns dictate the ways you use the syntactical parts of a sentence. For example, every sentence must include a subject and a predicate. While there are basic syntactic rules to follow, syntax makes it possible for writers to establish tone by varying the types of sentences in their writing.

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